Transportation of dangerous goods by sea is carried out in accordance with the International Code for the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by sea.
Sea transport of dangerous goods
All trucking is fraught with risk, and challenging this postulate is just a waste of time. Unfavorable weather conditions, road accidents caused by the carrier or third parties, damage to property due to low qualifications of personnel – these and other factors can provoke an insured event when transporting raw materials, goods and property of individuals. But when it comes to the delivery of dangerous goods, the logistic scheme must include increased control, compliance with strict rules and international norms.
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Sea transport of dangerous goods: requirements and recommendations
The list of objects associated with increased danger during storage and movement includes materials, products and substances that, under certain conditions, can cause fire, explosions, damage to equipment and buildings, cause death or injury to people, animals, cause material damage and harm to the environment.
In order to avoid accidents, accidents and man-made disasters, carrying dangerous goods by sea, carriers must adhere to international standards that strictly regulate this area:
- SOLAS International Convention for the Safety of Human Life
- The International IMDG Code governing the carriage of dangerous goods by sea
- MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
- United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods
Given the potential danger to people and the environment, we recommend a multimodal delivery scheme. If the main section of the route runs by sea, then delivery from the warehouse to the port and transportation to the consignee’s warehouses is carried out by a sub-carrier controlled by the multimodal transport operator (MTO). This model allows the main agent to control the quality of delivery at all logistics areas.
The carriage of dangerous goods by sea includes a list of safety rules. For basic safety precautions, consider:
- class of container ship in the register
- rules for loading and unloading operations
- norms of storage, stowage and transportation;
- conditions of compatibility of goods for joint storage and transportation;
- quality of packaging and rules for preserving its integrity
- safety rules in case of accidents
In addition to the incompatibility of certain categories of dangerous goods, there may also be restrictions on the amount of dangerous contents on board. A plan for the placement of containers with dangerous goods on board must be drawn up.
Transportation of dangerous goods by sea requires increased attention to containers and packaging. Before taring (measuring) and loading, the transport agent takes the following measures:
- testing containers for integrity and strength
- packaging certification / verification of sub-carrier documentation
- testing packaging material
- checking the integrity and reliability of the packaging
- Checking the tightness of packaging (for highly hazardous groups of substances)
- labeling of packaging according to hazard class
When choosing packaging for hazardous materials and substances, it is extremely important to pay attention to the raw materials of manufacture. In particular, it is allowed to use only inert materials that do not react with the contents of the container. In turn, the tightness of the container is mandatory when moving and storing flammable, poisonous, corrosive and hazardous substances / gases that, when interacting with oxygen and / or water, produce an undesirable reaction.
Sending unsafe substances in metal or polymer containers has a number of additional requirements. In such cases, it is necessary to additionally pack the cargo in wooden boxes. If the customer has provided a risk-bearing cargo in glass containers, the transported property is tightly packed in boxes, filling the voids with non-combustible cushioning materials.
Documentation for the carriage of hazardous materials and substances by sea
Preparation of permits and certificates for the implementation of dangerous cargo transportation begins with checking the readiness of the vessel. The responsible employee performs control in the following areas:
- availability and serviceability of fire extinguishing equipment, gas sensors
- health of the ventilation system
- testing the dehumidification function
- the degree of readiness of the compartments for loading (absence of moisture, foreign objects and substances)
- Crew qualifications in the handling of dangerous goods
- instructing personnel regarding the handling of this type of cargo – moving, packaging, stowage, storage standards
Permits for the transportation of high-risk goods include: a document with information on the name and class of the transported object, packaging and labeling; a certificate of proper stowage and securing of cargo; plan for placing cargo on the ship and a number of others, depending on the operation and type of cargo.
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